THE CORE OF THE DEAL
This guide describes all the steps, processes, and scope of the Executive Project.
1. Project Report
Here, the criteria for designing the architectural solution must be precisely substantiated. The said proposal may have different foundations, from the most general: urban, contextual, temporal, historical, conceptual; also going through zoning, architectural program, formal style, location, budgets, structural system, soil characteristics, specialties, etc.; even the most specific such as the technical detail in the resolution of the elements or materials of the building and its surroundings, dimensions of enclosures, landscape, materials, construction systems and everything that defines the project.
2. Architecture Project
All specialties must be subordinated to the architectural project since this is the result that should be aspired to since it is the synthesis of all the requirements of the end-user and who should be the primary beneficiary of its realization.
2.1. Architectural Planimetries
This time, the architectural planimetry must be fully developed to clearly show how the different materials will be seen in the elevations, plans, and sections. These will be the basis for developing construction plans. This documentation includes:
Corresponds to the location plan of the property in the urban fabric. It must represent the distances that exist to its closest avenues. Here it should be shown how the building is located on the property. In addition, the landscape treatment of the exteriors and the roofs of the building must be observed, and interventions or improvements in the exterior areas must also be manifest.
2.3. Architectural Plans
Each level must be precisely defined so no room is left without a reference since it will be based on this plan that the other specialties will be projected.
Elevations are an excellent way to show the desired final result of the building since they will be the most accessible views for the visitor to appreciate. They must have height dimensions and outline the location of the structural axes.
2.5. Transverse and longitudinal cuts and sections
These planes will be the references that will show the finished heights between floor and ceiling, levels, slab thicknesses, false ceilings, size of openings, etc.
3. Detailed Technical Specifications
They are the technical specifications of the materials, construction elements, and techniques to reach the expected result of the building.
3.1. Technical specifications of materials
The type of material must be detailed, through which product or piece it is joined with another, its characteristics, thickness, number of applications, type of termination, etc. Everything that corresponds to the correct description of the material, so there is no doubt that it means confusing it with another similar one.
3.2. Thermal Envelope
The minimum thermal requirements for the thermal envelope (roof complex, wall complex, ventilated floor complex, doors, windows, etc.) must be complied with. That is why emphasis should be placed on the thermal characteristics of the materials or the construction elements as a whole, which are the sum of these materials.
3.3. Fire Resistance
Fire resistance must be complied with in the construction elements or materials required for the type of project, and the time it must resist before the onslaught of a fire to be able to vacate the building on time and extinguish the sinister.
3.4. Technical Methodology
The methodology, technique, or tool used in some materials must be specified since that will determine the visual result of said material. If something is left unspecified, the respective query will likely not be made, and the solution will be left to the executor's discretion. It will not necessarily correspond to what is expected by the designer.
4. Plans and Construction Details:
These plans correspond to the technical drawing of specific construction elements, which precisely details what a union, an encounter, a profile, dosage, thickness, or technical specification of the components is like. They may also correspond to representative sections of project areas. These plans may include:
Project descriptive report
Plans for carpentry, blacksmithing, etc.
Door and window details
Sections (longitudinal, transverse, or as required)
cut per front
5. Projects and Reports of specialties:
It corresponds to the in-depth development of the different specialties that comprise the entire project. Here we name the most common:
5.1. Soil Study
In projects of low magnitude, it can be seen as a recognition of the geological strata that will support the project, through a recognition through a visual and tactile appreciation of the strata of a few coves and later apply criteria or tables, according to that assessment. But reaching a certain magnitude of the project, it becomes essential that an expert carry it out; this task will be carried out by a surveyor specialist who will be able to give an exact figure of how much that type of soil supports and its behavior under loads. This study will be a fundamental starting point for the structural calculation.
5.2. Structural Calculation Memory
This part consists of defining the structural system, the criteria, characteristics, calculation memory, and technical specifications of the building. Everything guarantees its structural stability, considering all the loads and forces that could generally act on it. It is the one in which the details of the sections, thicknesses, material, type of reinforcement of each of the structural elements of construction (foundation, columns, beams, slabs) are drawn and, specified and integrated:
-Floor plan and assembly details
-Details of beams, columns and castles.
-Specifications and quantifications of steel.
5.3. Topographic Project
This project is carried out by a topographer, who is the specialist who will be in charge of measuring the tectonics of a piece of land. The projects, depending on their dimensions and regularity of the property, can range from simple triangulations to locate each point of the property polygon or existing buildings to very complex measurements, carried out with total stations, which require advanced calculations. Grids or contour lines can be generated with different measurement units, ranging from flat terrain to terrain that is too irregular or has very steep slopes. As a result, the surveyor will give a very precise account of the silhouette of the relief by means of a planimetry with contour lines, grids or slope sections.
It includes all the plans that help understand and execute the services and installation systems of a building. The facilities of an executive project are the following:
6.1. Sanitary and rainwater installation plant
The sanitary project corresponds to the distribution of sanitary networks, collection and management of rainwater, irrigation, etc. The sanitary project the system in charge of evacuating wastewater to the sewage network, different types of chambers and the corresponding treatment of wastewater. In the event that there are no nearby networks, these projects must be approached as estimated by the different regulations for non-urbanized areas, with respect to the exploitation and protection of natural, surface or groundwater sources.
6.2. Hydraulic installation
Hydraulic network plan, isometry, diameter details, pipe reductions, bathroom details, hydropneumatic pump, cisterns or water tanks and swimming pools.
6.3. Electrical installation
In this case we are referring to residential electrical projects, which means that they are located on a private property, so said project starts from the connection and distributes electrical energy to each enclosure or area that requires it, always within the property. This project is carried out by an authorized specialist, who, depending on the electrical power required by the project, will depend on the certified category to which the specialist must belong.
6.4. Gas installation
This project corresponds to the pressurized gas system that distributes to the different points of the building. Depending on the pressure and complexity that is required, it will depend on how much expertise the designer in charge must have.
7. Other Projects
Depending on the complexity or innovations that a project incorporates, other systems or experts can be used, which are less common, but which, fortunately, over time are added to more projects as mandatory. Likewise, these must be carried out by authorized specialists for future procedures, certifications, regulations or laws to which some are subject.
7.1. Landscape Project
This project is directly related to the gestural intention of the architectural project, since it is visible to the user. Here the landscaper will determine the species of trees, shrubs, lawns, transit areas, rest areas, recreation areas, objects or sculptures, water bodies, puddles, lagoons, pavements, etc. A treatment of the landscape consistent with the project and the context.
7.2. SAC Project
Corresponds to the calculation of the different elements that make up the system that will provide the building with hot water. Obtained by solar heaters or heat exchangers in its different platforms, which will be redistributed in the building to have hot water and thus reduce the demands on the main hot water system.
7.3. Fire Mitigation
There are different ways to mitigate a fire. They can be passive that protect our materials with intumescent paints or similar that can slow the spread of fire and prolong the stability of construction elements; as there are also active measures, water sprinklers, specialized systems and products (chemicals or foams), where spraying water would be disastrous for the elements found there. There are also the measures required by law as minimum from a certain magnitude of projects for public use, occupancy load or number of fuel elements, such as dry and wet networks, use of fire extinguishers, buckets of sand, pressurized stairs, etc.
7.4. Control and Security
These systems are usually closed circuits and ideally directly connected to each other to prevent external infiltration. They usually correspond to a set of cameras and sensors of all kinds, which can be monitored by security managers or automatic activation of alarms and warnings in the event of an intrusion or threat or only for access control. Ideally, they should have a backup power system in the event of a power outage.
7.5. Antistatic Systems
In some quite complex projects, measures are applied to mitigate the static produced by users when walking, this is usually done in projects that have high-tech electrical equipment, which are ultrasensitive to these discharges, although minimal, of high incidence. in them. These systems can be double floors or antistatic materials in specific zones or enclosures of the building.
It will be in charge of providing the appropriate temperature for the type of activity carried out by the user inside the building. Since it should be remembered that an active user produces more heat than one in a passive state. Ideally, this system is controlled by an intelligent system that modifies the parameters based on sensors or, failing that, controlled by the user through thermostats.
7.7. Air conditioning
It will be in charge of complementing or including the heating and ventilation project itself. Since it is responsible for providing clean air and its replacement along with air humidification. Emphasis should also be placed on the correct speed of air injection, since uncomfortable air currents can make its inhabitants sick, even when the thermostats are setting the correct air temperature levels. Care must also be taken with the sick building syndrome, which is the accumulation of water in condensation trays that are not emptied regularly and that generates the proliferation of fungi, which are spread through the air conditioning systems.
7.8. Lighting technology
Although each room must have a power of light depending on the activity that is carried out in it. Design proposals can also be incorporated, through the different treatments that can be given to this magnificent resource. Many times this project can be carried out by someone who is related to electrical projects, but the ideal is that they also have a background in the arts, to establish compositional criteria in which they can coherently incorporate the lighting proposal into the architectural project.
Corresponds to the evaluation of the behavior of sound waves that, depending on the type, can be channeled to focus, disperse or mitigate. In some cases, noise will simply be sought to disappear, so that it is not a nuisance for adjoining premises or for the immediate environment. In others, it will consist of allowing the long or short waves to reach certain points or disappear to improve and refine the sound for those present. Undoubtedly, a very refined specialty that is often related to performing, musical or communication arts projects. It also seeks to mitigate external noise to the building, in some cases it can be involved with the landscape project or volumetry of the building, since they turn out to be very useful ways.
7.10. Weak Currents
These projects correspond to systems that do not use the traditional voltage, so they require transformers and specific power networks. Such are telephony, cable, camera systems, sensors, security systems, etc.
7.11. Backup System
These systems generally have to do with the power supply. Where specific systems must be activated or deactivated, to replace the system failure for a reasonable period, or devices that activate automatically to provide the minimum lighting conditions for the inhabitant to evacuate the building. It also includes the behavior of the elevators, so that they have the necessary energy to descend to the first levels automatically and open their doors
In the event that some green technologies are implemented, we must attach in the executive project all the necessary plans to be able to carry out the execution of the works, within the most used systems, we can find the following:
8.1. Green roofs
Distribution plan, sections and details of the system components, as well as details of the flora that the roof will have.
Construction detail and location of the plant within the project.
Construction detail and location within the project.
8.4. Rainwater collection system
Plant for the collection network, distribution, details of pipes and connection diameters.
8.5. Solar panels
Panel placement plant, wiring and distribution network, as well as connection details.
9. Work Plan or Schedule
Diagram that has the function of defining the distribution of the costs of the work in time. The schedules can be carried out through a process called "critical path", also through digital programs or software.
Although the selection of the method is important depending on the type of project, the most important are the steps to follow to prepare the schedule of activities:
9.1. Compilation of fundamental information
Gather all the details of the project, define the delivery dates and the obstacles and incidents that may arise along the way.
9.2. Definition of tasks
With the information in hand, we must establish the activities to be carried out to achieve the project. The possible risks associated with these activities must also be taken into account.
9.3. Sequence of tasks
The relationship between the activities is established, those that can be carried out simultaneously and those that are to generate a dynamic order.
9.4. Establishment of times and resources
Estimate the time we will need to complete each task and the human and material resources that will be needed to carry them out.
9.5. Distribution of tasks
Tasks will be assigned to the respective team members, who will be responsible for them until they are achieved.
Once we have prepared the schedule of activities, its monitoring and review is essential to make the necessary adjustments to achieve the objectives set at the beginning. This is where the role of a good project manager comes into play, a perfectly trained leader who knows the company, its projects and the potential of its valuable human team in depth.
These are the documents that make up the matrices of materials, machinery, and personnel, translated into costs according to the scope of each construction item. A fundamental part of the executive project, it is made up of different documents, among which we can find the following:
Catalog of concepts
11. 3D visualization
Technological digital programming tools that offer us the conceptualization of our project through three-dimensional virtual tours in order to appreciate the final concept of our project before construction. The most used tools are: